The quantitative precision of information and its breadth of application have come at a cost, said Terrence W. Deacon, professor of anthropology and neuroscience at the University of California-Berkeley, at the ISIS (International Society for Information Studies) Summit Vienna 2015. After describing a mathematical theory of communication, Deacon said the "redefinition of information" was something that became precisely measurable in "bits." Shannon, Wiener, and Bateson were also cited by Yixin Zhong, founding professor of the Research Center for Information and Intelligence Science at Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, in his three presentations, "Methodology Shift in Information Studies," "The Law of Information Conversion and Intelligence Creation," and "On Definitions of Information." Asli Tunc, professor at Istanbul Bilgi University's faculty of communications, presented "Circumventing and Succumbing to Media Control in Turkey: Social Media as a Sphere of Struggle," a case study on the use of social media, primarily Twitter, in Turkey. Edward Snowden was featured in several sessions.
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